(3) Passage “from Pravda” were presented about each country, with passage information being either Congruent or. It is interesting to observe that this codification through impulses is typically “binary,” no different from those used a century later in computers and then in the greater part of telecommunications systems. While recognizing a diversity of approaches, the Christian perspective of a world created by the divine Word, who is the source of intelligibility and meaning, offers a connection with the perspective that philosophy, starting from the analysis of science, indicates regarding the intelligibility and order of nature, and the coordination shown by many of its processes. Theological Aspects: M.C. Our perceptual experience is distinguished from our perceptual beliefs by the different way sensory information is encoded in these internal structures. 1. We distinguish between system software, which makes the functioning of the computer possible, and application software dedicated to finding solutions to problems or to executing tasks entrusted to the computer. In electronic computers, something happens which is different from what happens with telephones and record discs and is more similar to the telegraph. In this memory, all the information necessary for the use of the computer, data, and programs is recorded in advance. A post hoc model was proposed in which knowledge and attitude are regarded as components of one system, with knowledge dominating processing when passage contents are high in information value and/or disagree with expectations, while attitude dominates processing when passage contents are of low information value and in agreement with expectations. Theology, for its part, has had a specific interest in information regarding two principal aspects: the new developments brought about by the society of information, and the epistemological significance of information in the natural world. of Universitat de Barcelona. Contact Details. The theories evolve and thus also the concepts and notions. Knowledge is then analyzed as information caused belief. The Theory of Information - V. The Birth of Informatics - VI. One could distinguish a “theoretical informatics,” that is, the branch of applied mathematics that deals with the theory of algorithms (an “algorithm” is a sequence of operations capable of bringing about the solution to a problem in a finite number of steps) from the theory of formal languages and the theory of automation. Therefore, the elementary command becomes, more precisely, “Read the contents of these memory locations, execute this operation, write the result in this other location, and continue to the following command.” A program is nothing but a long list of such commands. The Transdisciplinary Nature of the Concept of Information: Technology, Biology, and Physics 1. Scientific language highlights another aspect, that of sharing, which exists in ordinary practice as well. This approach to the notion of information has, however, as a counterpart, that it seems to render the notion redundant. superimposition of natural signs is then described. Readers who are very interested in this topic can find more details, particularly regarding the quantitative aspects (the diffusion of computers throughout the world, their corresponding dimensions and facilities, etc. The semantic field for the term “form” is very wide. Indeed, in the classical philosophical context (particularly the Aristotelian context) “form” was normally correlated to “matter.” The relationship is that which exists between potentiality and actualization, a bit like clay when it assumes the shape of a brick: The work of an external agent takes the brick from a potential state (shapeless clay) to its present state (clay in the shape of a brick). I. Terminological Clarifications - II. In this case the “communication” does not occur between living organisms, or between human beings and the technology invented by them and in which they have inserted an automatic language, but rather between the non-living world and us. The information contained in the crystalline structure of ice, for example, is represented by the reciprocal position of its atoms, that is to say, by the fact that their thermal agitation is bound to take place within the nodes of a lattice. Scholars can consult the online catalogues of all of the world’s great libraries without moving from their desks; their bibliographical research, which once would have required days of tedious work, can now be done in a few minutes, and articles arrive via telefax, or through electronic mail. Currently teaching at the Logic Dept. The final chapters attempt to develop a theory of meaning (or belief content) by viewing meaning as a certain kind of information-carrying role. The Internet originated in 1969 when the U.S. Ministry of Defense, wanting to build a telecommunications network impervious to sabotage, found the best solution to be in utilizing the world wide telecommunications system, in which messages run through itineraries nearly undetected. The role of the “final cause” would appear if we asked ourselves, for example, what aim the technician proposes when he creates the paddle of the turbine, whether it is the production of electrical energy, the propulsion of an airplane, or something else, and what then would be the aim for which the airplane is destined. If, instead, that very probable event does not occur (or its contrary takes place), it is a cause of surprise and reflection: By increasing our knowledge, it thus “informs us” all the more. At first the technical tool had been seen only as a means for the transmission of information between humans, but successively we have begun to speak of information also for communication between man and machine: The designer and the production technician communicate to an automatic machine the information relative to the fabrication of a product (for example, the paddle of a turbine). The codification and the decodification happen at a cerebral level. The same could be said of a person listening to musical transmissions. Every form has the function, in some way, of the archetype of the form of the inferior level, so that the whole of reality appears organized according to a vertical order, a hierarchy of forms that, at least analogically, reflect the hierarchy of existing beings. This extreme miniaturization, obtained with very refined techniques of photoincision (which will eventually reach the limits imposed by the very structure of the matter) fulfills not only the requirement of being packed in a small space, but also, and primarily, that of allowing a shorter running time. And Mingers (1997) adds, "Information systems could not exist … It is easy to see that the technical world today is dominated by the concept of information, so much so that information itself has become the characteristic element. In some cases it has been relegated to the cultured language: We use the expression, for example, “to form one’s conduct according to moral values.” In addition to this practical emphasis the theoretical aspect must be mentioned. Subjects rated each passage for aggressiveness. Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. And so life seems to be the center of “information” at many levels. Toward an alternative notion of information systems ontologies: Information engineering as a... Fonseca, Frederico T.; Martin, James E. 2005-01-01 00:00:00 Introduction The problem of constructing ontologies for organizing databases is becoming intensified as the need for efficient access to broad ranges of data derived from a variety of sources increases. On the other hand, it seems profoundly disturbing because it represents the extreme point of a process of technical “depersonalization” and of its own autonomous construction, which is hard to control and, for this reason, potentially prey to evil, inhumane powers. The term “true” is here intended in a purely logical sense, that is to say, as a result of the rules of logical consequentiality. 2. The capital letter A, for example, is represented by the sequence 01000001, while the lower case a is represented by the sequence 0110001. Every program (whether it is system or application software) is written in a “programming language.” This expression signifies (though in a rather anthropomorphous way) a system of information coding that is accessible (“understandable”) to the computer. Perceptual knowledge is an information-dependent internal state with a content corresponding to the information producing it. Information in the Physical Universe: Information and Natural Laws. This occurs secondly at the level of complex, codified information that provides the subject with all that is necessary to develop its vital functions, making it the final reference point for the reciprocal coordination of each vital function, in conjunction with relating to information provided by the environment. Informatics is tightly linked with applied mathematics and with information theory; moreover, it concerns electronic computers. https://www.notion.so. The reason for this is simple, and is well exemplified by the CD, which is much smaller than the vinyl disk, yet nevertheless permits a much higher quality of reproduction. In modern language there remains only residual links with these original meanings, but as we will progressively see they are again finding a place in our culture, principally as a result of scientific research and technological advancement. The problem has two aspects. One hears speculation about a “cabled city” and of an “intelligent house.” The first expression refers to telephone cables which would be substituted by supports with an enormously transmission capacity, for example by using optical fibers. There is another link between information and form: To be transmitted, the information must, in fact, be “formulated” (we are therefore led to a new concept, that of “formulation”), that is, fixed according to a “code” that is shared between the transmitter and the receiver. Notion’s biggest problems are likely to be quality related, and I give a few marketing and product ideas to solve them. The mathematical formula adopted to measure the quantity (or the content) of information is identical to that used in thermodynamics to measure entropy, apart from a change of sign. In Morse code, every letter of the alphabet is represented by an ordered succession of two elementary symbols: a dot and a line, a short impulse or a long one. 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