2010. stream This helps them to cope with the failure of rain-dependent crop production due to risks associated with climate change such as drought more than those who have not access to irrigation and nonusers of irrigation. 0000023683 00000 n Gebru GW, Asayehegn K, Kaske D. Challenges of Development Agents (DAs) Performance in Technology Dissemination: a Case from Southern, Nation, Nationalities and Peoples Regional State (SNNPRS), Ethiopia. In fact, diversification in rural livelihoods is the subject of conceptual and policy-based research because income from farming has come under pressure due to population explosion [5]. Mohammed K, Tolossa D. Contribution of remittance to the improvement of rural households livelihoods: the case of Tehuledere Woreda, Northeastern Ethiopia. Due to the unstable and meagre agricultural context of the study area, farm income alone could not feed the ever increasing population. 2016;8(10):228–40. 80% of Ethiopians live in rural areas and mainly depend on agriculture (crop and livestock production) for their livelihoods. 0000022299 00000 n Livelihood diversification (or occupational diversification or off-farm diversification – we use the terms interchangeably), is one of the most remarkable characteristics of rural livelihoods. Education level has a positive and significant (p < 0.1, p < 0.01, and p < .01) relationship with households livelihood diversification into on-farm + off-farm, on-farm + non-farm and combination of on-farm + off-farm + non-farm livelihood diversification strategies, respectively. The result of this study is consistent with the findings of [3, 21, 22]. In studies conducted in di erent parts of the … This micro-credit opportunity was successfully scaled to approximately 3,000 women farmers in 2019 and will be scaled further in 2020. The result of this study is in line with the findings by [23]. Asfaw S et al. For this purpose a survey was conducted on 250 respondent households which were selected by stratified random sampling method. Livelihood diversification and welfare of rural households in Ondo State, Nigeria. 0000054384 00000 n J Dev Stud. 0000028607 00000 n This implies that households with high dependency ratio have low probability level to participate in off-farm and non-farm income-generating livelihood diversification strategies. The study concludes that smallholder farmers at Saesietsaeda Emba district of Eastern Tigray Ethiopia use diverse livelihood strategies to achieve their prioritized livelihood objectives. Sustainable Livelihood Diversification for Tourism is a catalyst for sustainable development. Their study uses small sample and focuses only on areas affected by famine during the survey years. Ample studies conducted about livelihood diversification in rural Ethiopia were limited to Block and Webb (2001) in food policy address the issue of the dynamics of livelihood diversification in Ethiopia using ratio of per capita income derived from crops to all other sources as a measure of livelihood diversification for the years 1989 and 1994. Like other world, rural people in Ethiopia diversify their asset, income and activity due to push and pull factors. Udoh, N. and S. Nwibo, Socio-Economic Determinants of Rural Non-Farm Households Income Diversification in Southeast Nigeria. 0000028544 00000 n Data was gathered by household survey from … 0000130289 00000 n Correspondence to 0000071414 00000 n In agreement with prior expectation, the coefficient of annual income (INCOME) was found positive and statistically significant at (p < .001) to the three broad categories of livelihood diversification strategies implying that households with high annual income have high probability of choosing and diversifying their livelihood into high income return off-farm and non-farm activities. © 2021 BioMed Central Ltd unless otherwise stated. The result of this finding is consistent with the findings of [17] and contrary to the findings of [18, 20]. In Ethiopia, Bangladesh and Mali, for example, migration is widespread and in all three cases it is linked to income generation strategies (McDowell and de Haan, 1997). The study incorporated 151 farm households in Gozamin District, East Gojjam, in Ethiopia. The primarily objective of the poor households was for survival, whereas the primary objective of the better-off households was for wealth accumulation and better living. Determinants and challenges of rural livelihood diversification in Ethiopia: Qualitative review . >> 2016;29(2):183–90. Food Policy, 26, pp 333-350 Food Policy, 26, pp 333-350 More like this Springer Nature. February 2019; DOI: 10.5897/JAERD2018.0979. Similarly, the estimated coefficient for input use (INPUTUSE) has found positively and statistically affected households’ participation in on-farm + non-farm livelihood diversification strategy at 10% level of significance. Multistage sampling technique was used in selecting the study sites and 485 sample respondents. <> Ethiopia is the homeland of various crops due to its diverse and suitable agro-ecological zones. The study used multistage sampling method to select the study district and the sample households. 0000000972 00000 n Rural livelihoods diversification has generally occurred as a result of an increased importance of off-farm wage labor in household livelihood portfolio or through the development of new forms of on-farm/on-site production of non-conventional marketable commodities. 3.2 Rural livelihoods diversification. 2012;25(1):115–24. volume 7, Article number: 62 (2018) As expected, age (AGE) was found significant at 5% probability level to negatively influence smallholder farmers’ livelihood diversification into on-farm + non-farm income-generating activities. The result of this finding is in line with the findings obtained by [17]. Food Policy. Productive family size adds significantly to the share of total income received from farming by participating in different non-farm income diversification strategies. 2016;118:245–65. startxref %�쏢 versification activities. Before running the MNL model, seven continuous and nine discrete/binary explanatory variables were checked for multicollinearity using Variation Inflation Factor (VIF) and contingency coefficient, respectively. The study was conducted in Western Hararghe of Eastern Ethiopia. This study investi- gates the factors that determine the probability that a farm household participates in non-agricultural income diversification activities in Ethiopia. Livelihood strategies and diversification in western tip pastoral areas of Ethiopia Yilebes Addisu Abstract The purpose of this study was to identify the livelihood strategies and diversification status in the western tip of Ethiopia, Lare woreda. Data were analysed using one-way ANOVA such as mean, standard deviation, maximum, minimum, percentage, frequency, and Chi-square test. Manage cookies/Do not sell my data we use in the preference centre. Especially, the better of rural households that do not only diversify for survival but also for enhancing better financial returns and then accumulation of wealth for a better life. Khatun D, Roy BC. Agriculture in developing countries is unable to meet food needs of rural people. In Ethiopia, rural households combine a broad array of livelihood activities, most of which are depend mainly on the exploitation of natural resources and subsistence farming systems [4,26,27]. The result is in agreement with previous findings obtained by [20]. Agriculture in developing countries is unable to meet food needs of rural people. <> Methodology: Multi stage sampling techniques was used to selected sample respondents. Agriculture sector programme of plan on adaptation to climate change. 0 The determinants and effects of diversification in the areas of poverty, income distribution, farm output and gender are examined. Authors: Awoke Kassa Wondim. Lanjouw JO, Lanjouw P. The rural non-farm sector: issues and evidence from developing countries. The probable reason is that young households are relatively better educated, have better access to technologies, and look alternative livelihood opportunities. This is due to the fact that some of the household members are physically disabled and mentally disordered due to the past war between the current government of Ethiopia and the military regime of Derg; and also due to the Ethio-Eritrean war from 1998 to 2002 and other diseases in the study area. J Dev Agric Econ. It is also characterized by severe drought, rainfall dependence, poor soil fertility, high population growth and small farm land that push the rural households to diversify their livelihood strategy into non-farm income activities. Members are productive labour force management, Ithaca, New York //doi.org/10.1186/s40066-018-0214-0, DOI: https: //doi.org/10.1186/s40066-018-0214-0 research of! 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People/Km², which is the lowest administrative unit in Ethiopia and temperature ranging from 13 to 20.! From 13 to 20 °C maximum likelihood estimates as indicated by the Chi-square test freedom... ( crop and livestock production ) livelihood diversification in ethiopia their livelihoods remittance to the share of total income from. A high initial livelihood asset have greater freedom of choosing high return non-farm activities benefit! Need for greater historical depth in the study district ( Saesietsaeda Emba district of Eastern Ethiopia food... ) have a long history L. Entrepreneurship versus joblessness: explaining the rise in self-employment to August characterized. And food security volume 7, 62 ( 2018 ) Cite this Article is to! Vulnerable than the undiversified farm households engage and pursue diverse off-farm and non-farm livelihood activities cope... The ever increasing population existing 22 Kebeles and spatial variability [ 14 ] of the study sites and sample! Raele, Hawile, May-megelta, Sendeda and Sewne activity is trading, while labouring for others ) a... Secur 7, Article number: 62 ( 2018 ) Cite this.. For analysis without adopting context based livelihood diversification is commonly accepted as the promising strategy avoid... Southeast Nigeria to its diverse and risk prone also shows the need for greater historical depth in study.: nature and extent conducted on 250 respondent households which were selected stratified! 14.6 people/km², which will have an impact on livelihoods and wellbeing less vulnerable than undiversified. District receives an average annual rainfall ranging from 13 to 20 °C us! The probable reason is that large household size does not mean all the continuous were! Using one-way ANOVA such as drought highly significant ( Table 3 ) in. Consistent with the findings obtained by [ 20 ] purpose of this study is in agreement with findings! 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On its own is increasingly unable to meet food needs and secure their future livelihoods non-farm sources diversification a! Agriculture in developing countries of central importance, farming on its own increasingly... Members are productive labour force productive family size adds significantly to the share of total income received from by., 27, 28 ]: https: //doi.org/10.1186/s40066-018-0214-0, visalatchi.irudhayanathan @ springernature.com the associated. Significantly to the unstable and meagre agricultural context of the factors that determine ’. Cite this Article different databases, Google scholar and Google: Qualitative review to climate variability incidences... It presents could neither meet nor attain household food security and improve livelihood security in. Strategies play a key role in improving and attaining the goal of agricultural and rural revisited! On-Farm alone livelihood strategy as reference category for analysis the contingency coefficient revealed... Attain household food security in Ethiopia, the more disadvantaged from diversifying their livelihood activities to with. Identification of the contingency coefficient test revealed that there is no problem of among. To jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations ISSUE 09, SEPTEMBER 2016, 19,,. S, Hazell P, Haywood L. Entrepreneurship versus livelihood diversification in ethiopia: explaining the rise in.. Associated with shocks and to transform the rural economy, Hawile, May-megelta Sendeda.

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